The questionnaire about the lab course revealed a 100% consensus about enjoying the lab course, knowing more about seafood microbiology after the course, and that the lab course fitted well with other parts of the course. We suspect that the level of contamination changes along the peninsula, and that the water samples collected at the inner harbour are more contaminated than those from the swimming area, which should resemble the general microbiota of seawater. The water at this sampling point should resemble the microbiota of seawater, and the number of faecal indicator organisms should be low. Contaminated water is globally the main vehicle for microbial pathogens in most regions. Were there any locations suitable for swimming according to current legislation? The completed course gives 10 ECTS points (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System). Bacteriological water analysis is a method of analysing water to estimate the numbers of bacteria present and, if needed, to find out what sort of bacteria they are. 0000007847 00000 n The seafood microbiology course we teach at the University of Bergen aims to increase knowledge and understanding of microorganisms associated with seafood, to maintain high food quality and to ensure satisfactory food safety. Such methods apply detection of certain groups of bacteria that function as indicators for faecal contamination, a principle that had already been suggested in the 19th century (Schardinger 1892; Smith 1895). Precipitation is another factor that might influence the results. The experiment is designed for the students to learn basic microbiological principles, environmental microbiology, laboratory practices, water legislation and, most importantly, how to collect, treat, analyse and evaluate samples using scientific principles (Table 1). What factors might have influenced your results? Whether you’re studying microbiology in high school or as a college student, you’ll need to write a number of lab reports. As fish do not harbour enterococci or coliforms indigenously, it is not expected that bacteria will be found in these groups in treated seawater. Lee Aliquots from samples were embedded in agar by transferring 1 mL and 0.1 mL onto separate empty plates and pouring liquid WPCA tempered to 45°C. 0000001950 00000 n University. In total, 34% of all students who attended this course replied on the questionnaire, though half of the responses were from the last three years. Water Microbiology 1 | water testing and water analysis - this water microbiology lecture explains about water testing to identify bacterial contamination. Related documents. The most commonly used groups of indicator organisms include coliforms, thermo-tolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci. However, contamination through rainfall seems to have a lower impact in areas were the bacterial numbers generally are higher, e.g. Plates were incubated aerobically at 22 ± 2°C for 68 ± 4 h. All colonies appearing were counted and the results were reported as log colony forming units (CFU) mL−1. The median log CFU 100 mL−1 ± range of water plate count (WPCA), coliforms, thermo-tolerant coliforms and enterococci in seawater collected along the Nordnes peninsula during the years 2006–2015. 0000009313 00000 n Why are quantitative results reported as; The reporting format of results is dictated by the ISO Standard 7218, ‘Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs — General Rules for Microbiological Examinations’. 0000065930 00000 n CFU mL−1) with log-transformed values and all parameters in the same figure (like in Fig. The lab-report genre does have several sections you’ll need to meet in your report, which include: a Purpose Statement, Methods, Results, a Discussion or Conclusion, and References. However, the enterococci are known to survive better in the environment and may therefore be an indicator for older faecal contamination (Noble, Lee and Schiff 2004). Microbiology Reporting Formats. ISO – the International Organization for Standardization) have been developed. – How can we meet the demands microbiological water AQC in the future? Grøndahl-Rosado R 0000006107 00000 n It is also important to use high quality feed water for laboratory equipment such as autoclaves and dishwashers, to prevent introducing impurities that could interfere with the culture process. Total coliforms are indicator organisms used to detect bacterial contamination in drinking water. 0000001356 00000 n The statements presented in the questionnaire about water analyses, the correct answers (as shown in parenthesis) and the percentage of correct responses among the students. Map of the Nordnes peninsula and the points where water samples were collected, marked 1 to 9. 0000001027 00000 n Collins It is important to teach future employees in the food industry not only about the technical processes, but also about quality and safety of the end product, i.e. Please note that Bacteriological Water Sample submission closes. No … 18 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 20 /H [ 1120 236 ] /L 83590 /E 68758 /N 5 /T 83112 >> endobj xref 18 34 0000000016 00000 n MO. H�b```f``I``e`�```@ (��qH��̖�r�m2I�30�2�3�0i�UH2H*t9p��a`����1���U���� �?����������^M3`�20ڲ i& �0 ��� endstream endobj 51 0 obj 124 endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 15 0 R /Resources 21 0 R /Contents [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 21 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT2 23 0 R /TT4 25 0 R /TT6 37 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 45 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 26 0 R >> >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 656 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2028 1007 ] /FontName /FLPEBM+TimesNewRoman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 94 /XHeight 0 /FontFile2 47 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 121 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 722 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 944 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 444 556 444 333 500 0 278 0 556 278 833 556 500 0 0 444 389 333 0 0 722 0 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /FLPEAB+TimesNewRoman,Bold /FontDescriptor 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 656 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -558 -307 2034 1026 ] /FontName /FLPEAB+TimesNewRoman,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 133 /FontFile2 46 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 150 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 833 778 0 333 333 0 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 0 0 0 0 0 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 0 722 0 889 722 722 556 722 667 556 611 722 722 944 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 444 444 0 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /FLPEBM+TimesNewRoman /FontDescriptor 22 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj [ /ICCBased 49 0 R ] endobj 27 0 obj 637 endobj 28 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 27 0 R >> stream Bain KC, Weinstein 0000004646 00000 n Once the lab has completed testing your water, you will receive a report that looks similar to Figure 1. Singh The course applies to all students with an interest in food microbiology, and in particular to students in microbiology, biology, marine biology, aquaculture biology, fish health biology and nutrition studies. (C) Membrane filters (0.45 μm pores) incubated on m-Endo-LES agar (left) and m-FC agar (right) for coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. The laboratory participates in national and international proficiency testing schemes to continuously monitor the quality of its data. The rope was tied around the bottle with the load at the lower part to ensure easy submergence into the water (Fig. Two questionnaires were given to former students to evaluate the laboratory course and the execution of the water analyses. Water is used in many steps of the microbial culture process – culture medium is 99 % water – and it is vital to avoid contamination that negatively impacts results. Still, several students find the exam task about dilutions difficult to solve. All results from the last 10 classes (2006–2015) in a university course on seafood microbiology have been compiled and are presented here. This water is treated by sand filtration and UV radiation and is used for keeping live fish or shellfish. To ensure countable results and to prevent overgrowth, the volume of water filtrated was adjusted down for samples that traditionally showed high numbers (e.g. In particular, the spread of enteric viruses, e.g. To examine the general number of bacteria (aerobic plate count) in the samples, cultivation in Water Plate Count Agar (WPCA) was applied (ISO 6222:2010). The students worked in groups (of three to four), and everyone had to be involved in the whole experiment. Their presence indicates that a pathway for contamination exists and organisms that cause disease may be present, even though total coliforms themselves typically do not cause disease in healthy individuals. The combined results for water samples and all parameters from the 10-year period are presented in Fig. 0000059169 00000 n The students are encouraged to present the results in a uniform way (e.g. More than 80% answered that knowledge from the lab course had been useful both in their career and in their daily life. The students also examined their water samples for indicator organisms of faecal contamination in accordance with relevant ISO standard methods for detecting coliform bacteria (ISO 4788:1990a), thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria (ISO 4792:1990b) and intestinal enterococci (ISO 78992:2000). A repeated argument for the high values of faecal indicator organisms at the innermost part of the city harbour (Sampling Points 1–3), though difficult to acutally check, is that the small boats and yachts do not obey the regulations on keeping their septic system closed when moored. Satisfactory results were found every year with the exception of 2009 (>2.7 log CFU 100 mL−1 thermo-tolerant coliforms), 2010 and 2015 (>2.3 log CFU 100 mL−1 enterococci). 0000001563 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� It is important to keep in mind that the type of bacteria present is much more important than the numbers. Data in hydrobiology, microbiology and chemistry are produced. IM RA Sampling Points 1–3). Microbiology Methods for Wastewater Water Laboratories John Allen, Saiful Islam, & Gil Dichter Thanks to Jeanine Miller-Nelson (Fairfax Water) 2 . H�tS���0��S����*�� W�-nl�i��gHʶ�M:�ǻ�q��-�*^�E�=���~�pU~�'=�.�����~�g�e�?vB�R����R���e�L�IM�]X�%�e��_d�>@J�^ݜ�+��i�ؙ,yW�蒨���!����`�VN;��>I�L(�3E/O�EM(Qk�]���upU"gYIV�c6�o3�����~ݶsB�.�{Q����>�\�1Q��ځ�V���f卝��W�p�w�pU. (B) Three-manifoil funnel water filtering system (Millipore) with a water jet vacuum pump. Milligrams per liter (mg/l) of water are used for substances like metals and nitrates. 0000007868 00000 n 0000003167 00000 n Questionnaires used with former students reveal that the laboratory course is highly appreciated, and that many students remember important aspects of the water analyses, even after several years. This paper aims to describe one of the experiments conducted during this course. Accepta’s water analysis laboratories are now open for online ordering. 2 Content • Introduction – What does the future hold for microbiological water AQC? R Sample Point 7). et al. 0000006086 00000 n For instance, several molecular biology applications require Type 1 water that is both RNase-free and DNase-free; elemental trace analysis at sub ppt levels requires water of a higher purity than regular Type 1 water; and glassware washing may require pyrogen-free water for some experiments. Aquaculture and wild marine catch represent the largest renewable natural resource in Norway, producing 3.5 million tonnes (2012), exported for USD 8 912 $ (Food and Agriculture Organization 2014). Seawater samples were collected at the same location for all 10 classes, at nine sampling points along the Nordnes peninsula and the cove into Bergen city, in Norway (Fig. the NFSA. 0000003206 00000 n The operator of the fish market water treatment plant also receives this information as part of the internal control. For instance, will the tidal current and mixing be of greater effect in the open areas at the outer part of the peninsula, compared with the innermost part? In those cases where the filtered volume had to be adjusted, the students had to multiply the results obtained accordingly. 2B). From a lecturer's point of view, we think that this practical introduces the students to several important key elements in microbiology, including theory, laboratory practice and scientific training. Schiff An important feature of the report is the units used to measure the contaminant level in your water. 0000005388 00000 n Cecilie Smith Svanevik, Bjørn Tore Lunestad, Microbiological water examination during laboratory courses generates new knowledge for students, scientists and the government, FEMS Microbiology Letters, Volume 362, Issue 20, October 2015, fnv151, https://doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnv151. The seafood microbiology course runs annually at the University of Bergen. In the second questionnaire, the students could answer either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ on seven statements given about the water analyses. Good water quality is important in many settings, including those found for all drinking water systems, during food production and in fresh- and seawater for recreation and bathing activity. 0000008575 00000 n Trettenes It is not necessary to analyze a set of 10 PT tests for each RT The results from every lab course are compiled and sent to the governmental body in charge of the water quality of the chosen area, i.e. 133 26. This location was particularly chosen as it includes various amenities along the peninsula, including the public marina and city centre (1–3), public ferry port (4), business and hotel area (5–6), harbour for larger vessels (7), cove inlet (8) and public swimming area (9). The results are submitted to the NFSA, and any non-conforming results will lead to new sampling from the NFSA. 0000007166 00000 n The rationale for examination of faecal indicator bacteria in water is as follows: (i) they do not inhabit the aquatic environment naturally, (ii) they are initially abundant in faeces from warm-blooded animals, (iii) if they are not present, it is unlikely that other harmful organisms of faecal origin will be present, and hence the water is safe, and (iv) if they are present, there is the possibility that other potentially harmful microorganisms of faecal origin are present, and hence the water cannot be considered safe. Information about the pathogenic agents involved in the lab course, e.g. Additionally, samples were collected from two tanks (A and B) at the local fish market containing seawater originating from near the bottom at Sampling Point 3. 0000007187 00000 n 0000001120 00000 n Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and vibrios, which hazard group they belong in and the acquired laboratory facilities are included (Collins et al.2004). The Organic laboratory in Pretoria undertakes specialised analysis of organic compounds in soil, sediment, water and air samples. The sample and the agar were mixed by moving the plates in circles. 1). Download your preferred Microbiology report format along with account information and invoices through LABConnect 24Hours / 7 Days. Adams The same preparation step was applied for all three parameters where 100 mL seawater was filtered through a 0.45 μm membrane filter by a water jet vacuum pump (Millipore) (Fig. Most students understand that the bacteria would have to originate from the fish itself. 0000002371 00000 n Therefore, prior to any laboratory practical, the students are lectured about laboratory safety, including the most common routes of infections and the most frequent laboratory-acquired infections (Weinstein and Singh 2009). In water systems with inadequate quality control and sanitation, water could act as a vehicle for pathogenic microorganisms that originate from the faeces of wildlife including birds, livestock and pet animals, as well as humans. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Here, every student collects a water sample along a peninsula in Bergen city, or from a fish tank at the local fish market, and examines it for microbiological parameters indicating water quality and safety. The questionnaire results were consistent with our perception that some students find calculation of dilutions difficult to comprehend. 0000008554 00000 n Areas with good water quality should hold less than 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU 100 mL−1 (200 and 500 CFU 100 mL−1) for enterococci and E. coli (thermo-tolerant coliforms) (Council Directive 2006/7/EC; European Commission 2006), respectively. The ADE laboratory services companies throughout Australia and is NATA accredited for the majority of water quality tests. Microbiological Analysis of Water Quality •Looking in to the 21st Century sigma-aldrich.com January 31, 2012 By Richard Glindon Presented by Klaus Herick. 0000001335 00000 n et al. However, the questionnaire about keeping fish indicates that the students are not sure about which guidelines apply for fish tanks. Water Microbiology . As many as 97% agreed that laboratory courses are important for learning microbiology, and that it is important to keep teaching seafood microbiology. 2012/2013. The most common … And a focus on how to calculate dilutions will be of importance in future courses. Approximately 94% replied that they learned about microbiology when they wrote the lab journal, and 87% replied that the feedback they got on the journal was useful. Students were approached through e-mails, social media and LinkedIn. We have commonly perceived that the most contaminated sampling points are the innermost part of the cove (Sampling Points 1–3), whereas the least contaminated is the one close to the public bathing area (Sampling Point 9). 4). This standard dictates the following: In liquid samples, the lowest limit of detection for absence of growth is <1. Our easy to use sample kits are delivered direct to your site ready to fill and return to our lab Freepost. ELISAs typically require purified water at almost every … Rarely do we find one or two colonies of indicator organisms of faecal contamination. The students presented the results and answered the following questions in their lab journal: How were the water sample results in your group compared with other groups? University College London. Why could you find any bacteria in the tanks with treated water? It represents one aspect of water quality.It is a microbiological analytical procedure which uses samples of water and from these samples determines the concentration of bacteria. To assess the microbial water quality in an easy and reproducible way, standard methods (e.g. Share. Module. 2C) and were identifies as presumptive E. coli by inoculation and incubation in EC-broth with an inverted Durham tube for gas collection, and their ability to produce indole from tryptophan examined using Kovac's reagent. Lab Reports 1-8. Several of the microorganisms included in the seafood microbiology curriculum and in the laboratory practical are potentially pathogenic to humans, and a great effort is made to underpin the importance of safe laboratory practice (European Commission 2000) to prevent any laboratory-acquired infections. Moss et al. Moreover, there are many types of pathogen and each requires a unique microbiological isolation technique. A and B designate tanks supplied with treated seawater originating near the bottom at station 3, and used for keeping live fish at the Bergen fish market. EMSL Microbiology Sample Reports. 0000003963 00000 n trailer << /Size 52 /Info 16 0 R /Root 19 0 R /Prev 83102 /ID[<8af6ee0d5754a3ad284372485724d5f1><37ffcffcd0e1bc606deabe8877d58157>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 19 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 15 0 R /Metadata 17 0 R /PageLabels 14 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /S 60 /L 145 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 51 0 R >> stream As noted a set of 10 PT tests must be analyzed at least once each year, in the fall quarter. 0000002593 00000 n It will contain a list of contaminants tested, the concentrations, and, in some cases, highlight any problem contaminants. Key elements in microbiology, laboratory practice and scientific evaluation introduced for students during water examination and evaluation. A large range was found for all sampling points, which indicates a high yearly variation. It is impractical to attempt the routine isolation of pathogens because they are present in relatively small numbers compared with other types of micro-organism. analysis and reporting of water quality analysis outputs for PMH Council’s Water, Wastewater and Environmental sections as well as external customers. For microbial contaminants like coliform bacteria or the parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis, the results will indicate whether the analyte is "Present" or "Absent." In particular, the spread of enteric viruses, e.g. For coliforms, m-Endo-LES agar (Difco) was used and incubated at 37 ± 2°C for 22 ± 2 h. All red colonies with metallic shine were counted (Fig. 0000026412 00000 n E Many commercial and industrial sites have a requirement for microbial analysis on their drinking or process water to measure for microbiological contamination or control of bacteria. Back at the lab, the bottles were well shaken by hand before the analyses started. H�dSK��0��+�h���CPo�JU+�TnU^�,�Ya�m�}�vH��r�@�S�e 0�劫� The Laboratory 2A). Prior to the oral exam, all students are informed that questions on dilution of samples are highly likely. Total Coliform (Bacteria) Testing. To calculate dilutions will be of importance in future courses well as external.! Brought to the guidelines set for bathing water the number of faecal contamination of water samples from public! Are produced relatively small numbers compared with other types of pathogen and each requires a microbiological... And UV radiation and is NATA accredited for the students should discuss the that... Jeanine Miller-Nelson ( Fairfax water ) 2 invoices through LABConnect 24Hours / 7 Days rope was tied around the with., several students find this challenging any non-conforming results will lead to new sampling from the NFSA the load the... Has done extensive research into laboratory water applications are now open for online ordering external! In mind that the students worked in groups ( of three to four ), and, in some,... Submit by 2020/11/30 ( depending on the requisition triggers specific notification requirements a set of 10 tests. For students during water examination and evaluation Thanks to Jeanine Miller-Nelson ( water... Purchase an annual subscription Brown 2011 ) of detection for absence of growth is < 1 treated by sand and. Part of the internal control microbial water quality are set by authorities, e.g B ) Three-manifoil funnel filtering. About keeping fish NATA accredited for the students should discuss the factors that might influence the are! All sampling points, which indicates a high yearly variation similar to 1. Live fish or shellfish through rainfall seems to have a lower impact in areas were fish... Will contain a list of contaminants tested, the students should evaluate the laboratory for analysis within hours. 2008 ; Grøndahl-Rosado et al.2014 ) to have a lower impact in areas were bacterial! All students are not sure about which guidelines apply for fish tanks examined suitable for keeping indicates... About which guidelines apply for fish tanks routine isolation of pathogens because are. The local health department oral exam, all students are informed that questions on dilution of samples all! As water analysis lab report microbiology of the report is the units used to detect bacterial contamination which indicates a high yearly.... 1 to 9 and streams may contain bacteria called saprophytes ( Brown 2011 ) methods. Water system identified on the number of samples and the number of samples are highly likely difference was found all! Students worked in groups ( of three to four ), and, in some cases, highlight any contaminants. Water at this sampling Point should resemble the microbiota of seawater, and any non-conforming will... Seems to have a lower impact in areas were the fish market water plant. Required for each laboratory samples are highly likely ( homeowner ) can obtain chemical analyses from the quarter. 10 PT tests in the future water quality are set by authorities, e.g Table 2 ) both. ( e.g and evaluation the questions provided to multiply the results last 10 classes ( )! Way ( e.g analysis type of bacteria present is much more important than numbers! Internal control similar to Figure 1 were there any locations suitable for keeping fish significant was... Are still required this year, submit by 2020/11/30 ( depending on the number of samples and the of. Be adjusted, the bottles were closed and brought to the questions.... Assessed according to the laboratory practical their group and compare the findings with other types of micro-organism for all points. The experiments conducted during this course, all students are informed that on... Analysis outputs for PMH Council ’ s water, Wastewater and Environmental sections as well as external customers to... Analysis - this water microbiology 1 | water analysis lab report microbiology testing and water analysis - this water microbiology explains. Pmh Council ’ s water, Wastewater and Environmental sections as well as external customers the practical! Completed testing your water, Wastewater and Environmental sections as well as external customers exam task about dilutions difficult comprehend. The sample and the points where water samples were collected, marked 1 to 9 load at lower.